Links from 2020-12-30

Minimal Consent - Browsing made seamless again.

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Graduate class: "Advanced Programming in the UNIX Environment" at Stevens Institute of Technology

In this course, students will learn to develop complex system-level software in the C programming language while gaining an intimate understanding of the Unix operating system (and all OS that belong to this family, such as Linux, the BSDs, and even Mac OS X) and its programming environment.

Topics covered will include the user/kernel interface, fundamental concepts of Unix, user authentication, basic and advanced I/O, fileystems, signals, process relationships, and interprocess communication. Fundamental concepts of software development and maintenance on Unix systems (development and debugging tools such as "make" and "gdb") will also be covered.

Students are expected to have a good working knowledge of the C programming language, have written non-trivial programs before, and to be able to competently use a Unix system with a command-line shell interface. All coursework will be done exclusively on a Unix system from the command-line. This is not an introduction to using Unix!

A beginner’s guide to gawk | Enable Sysadmin

Using the Awk programming language, you can manipulate or extract data, generate reports, match patterns, perform calculations, and more, with great flexibility. Awk allows you to accomplish somewhat difficult tasks with a single line of code. To achieve the same results using traditional programming languages such as C or Python would require additional effort and many lines of code.

SSH defaults, config, and priorities | Root

Over the years I’ve collected a rather messy ~/.ssh/config which resulted in some undesired behavior as a result of me misunderstanding how the config file prioritizes its options.

Today I investigated that.
In short, this is what I found:

Priority goes from top to bottom
Defaults MUST come last
Host specificity is NOT a factor of priority
Host sections can be specified multiple times
Multiple hostnames (and aliases) may be specified per section
Host sections apply to the name you use (not what it resolves to)

Chris’s Wiki :: blog/unix/NewgrpCommandWhy

Did you know that #Unix groups have passwords? Apparently if you set one, you then have to use newgrp to log in to that group.

I have never seen anyone use unix group passwords.

There are some things to say about this, but the first thing you might wonder is why the newgrp command exists at all. The best answer is that it’s mostly a Unix historical relic (or, to put it another way, a fossil).

The story behind Markdown.

How plain text got formatting, styled like classic emails.

Don’t Copy Paste Into A Shell

When you see a shell command on the Internet, do not copy it into your terminal.

Modern JavaScript Clipboard APIs allow a website to trivially overwrite what you put inside your clipboard, without the user’s confirmation or permission.

Diving into /proc/[pid]/mem

My internship was under the Emerging Technologies and Incubation group on a project involving gVisor. A co-worker contacted my team about not being able to read the debug symbols of stack traces inside the sandbox. For example, when the isolated process crashed, this is what we saw in the logs:

Check failure stack trace:
@ 0x7ff5f69e50bd (unknown)
@ 0x7ff5f69e9c9c (unknown)
@ 0x7ff5f69e4dbd (unknown)
@ 0x7ff5f69e55a9 (unknown)
@ 0x5564b27912da (unknown)
@ 0x7ff5f650ecca (unknown)
@ 0x5564b27910fa (unknown)

Obviously, this wasn’t very useful. I eagerly volunteered to fix this stack unwinding code - how hard could it be?

Framasoft / Mobilizon · GitLab

Mobilizon is a tool designed to create platforms for managing communities and events. Its purpose is to help as many people as possible to free themselves from Facebook groups and events, from Meetup, etc.
The Mobilizon software is under a Free licence, so anyone can host a Mobilizon server, called an instance. These instances may federate with each other, so any person with an account on ExampleMeet will be able to register to an event created on SpecimenEvent.

How to prepare for the Docker Hub Rate Limits

Up until recently, public images were able to be pulled as many times as needed by a user with no rate-limiting, gating, or payments getting in the way. On Nov 1st, that is all going to change an the following will come into play:

Unauthenticated users: 100 pulls / 6 hours
Authenticated users: 200 pulls / 6 hours
Paying, authenticated users: unlimited downloads

typesense/typesense: Fast, typo tolerant, fuzzy search engine for building delightful search experiences ⚡ 🔍

Typesense is a fast, typo-tolerant search engine for building delightful search experiences.


Typo Tolerance: Handles typographical errors elegantly, out-of-the-box.
Simple and Delightful: Simple to set-up, integrate with, operate and scale.
zap Blazing Fast: Built in C++. Meticulously architected from the ground-up for low-latency (<50ms) instant searches.
Tunable Ranking: Easy to tailor your search results to perfection.
Sorting: Sort results based on a particular field at query time (helpful for features like "Sort by Price (asc)").
Faceting & Filtering: Drill down and refine results.
Grouping & Distinct: Group similar results together to show more variety.
Scoped API Keys: Generate API keys that only allow access to certain records, for multi-tenant applications.Synonyms: Define words as equivalents of each other, so searching for a word will also return results for the synonyms defined.Curation & Merchandizing: Boost particular records to a fixed position in the search results, to feature them.
Raft-based Clustering: Setup a distributed cluster that is highly available.
Seamless Version Upgrades: As new versions of Typesense come out, upgrading is as simple as swapping out the binary and restarting Typesense.

Mutt 2.0 Release Notes

Backward Incompatible Changes

This release was bumped to 2.0, not because of the magnitude of features (which is actually smaller than past releases), but because of a few changes that are backward incompatible. Please read this list carefully to be aware of these changes:

When using <attach-file> to browse and add multiple attachments to an email, you may use <quit> to exit after tagging the files. Previously, "enter" had to be pressed on a non-directory file. This was awkward and non-intuitive.
The default value of some configuration variables is translatable. Those are marked with type string (localized) in the manual. Examples include $attribution and $status_format.
$ssl_force_tls defaults set. If this sounds familiar, that’s because I tried this before in the 1.13.0 release, but reverted it after some breakage. I’m trying again with a major revision number bump. If you need to connect to a non-encrypted site, you will need to turn this setting off yourself.
<decode-copy> and <decode-save> no longer perform header weeding by default. Header weeding can be toggled back on by setting $copy_decode_weed.
$hostname is set after processing the muttrc and -e command-line arguments. This was done to provide a way to skip DNS lookups of the FQDN, which on some systems can result in a delay when starting up.
$reply_to is processed before $reply_self.
Normal configuration variables (as opposed to user-defined my variables) were previously escaped when used on the right hand side of an assignment. Newline was converted to "\n", carriage return to "\r", tab to "\t", backslash and double quotes were backslash escaped. This was a bug, but a long-standing one, so I note the change here.

Chrome Root Program - The Chromium Projects

Historically, Chrome has integrated with the Root Store provided by the platform on which it is running. Chrome is in the process of transitioning certificate verification to use a common implementation on all platforms where it’s under application control, namely Android, Chrome OS, Linux, Windows, and macOS. Apple policies prevent the Chrome Root Store and verifier from being used on Chrome for iOS. This will ensure users have a consistent experience across platforms, that developers have a consistent understanding of Chrome’s behavior, and that Chrome will be better able to protect the security and privacy of users’ connections to websites.

For CAs that already participate in other public Root Programs, such as the Mozilla Root Program, many of these requirements and processes should be familiar.

During this transition, the Chrome Root Store contains a variety of existing Certification Authorities’ certificates that have historically worked in Chrome on the majority of supported platforms. This promotes interoperability on different devices and platforms, and minimizes compatibility issues. This should ensure as seamless a transition as possible for users.

In addition to compatibility considerations, CAs have been selected on the basis of past and current publicly available and verified information, such as that within the Common CA Certificate Database (CCADB).

For Certification Authorities that have not been included as part of this initial Chrome Root Store, questions can be directed to Priority is given to CAs that are widely trusted on platforms that Chrome supports, in order to minimize compatibility issues.

Standing on Our Own Two Feet - Let’s Encrypt - Free SSL/TLS Certificates

Let’s Encrypt will start signing certificates with its own root certificate,
ISRG Root X1. It was included in the Root Certificate program in 2016, but
there are still plenty of devices online that haven’t received updates since
then (#TheHorror).

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„Leyrers Online Pamphlet“ ist die persönliche Website von mir, Martin Leyrer. Die hier veröffentlichten Beiträge spiegeln meine Ideen, Interessen, meinen Humor und fallweise auch mein Leben wider.
The postings on this site are my own and do not represent the positions, strategies or opinions of any former, current or future employer of mine.


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